Atherosclerosis

Diet and Nutrition References


Fiber

Shrestha S, et al. "A combination therapy including psyllium and plant sterols lowers LDL cholesterol by modifying lipoprotein metabolism in hypercholesterolemic individuals." J Nutr. 2006;136(10):2492-7.

Wu H, et al. "Dietary fiber and progression of atherosclerosis: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study." Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:1085-1091.

Edington JD, et al. "Serum lipid response to dietary cholesterol in subjects fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet." Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;50:58-62.

Kirby RW, et al: "Oat-bran intake selectively lowers serum LDL concentration of hypercholesterolemic men." Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;34:824-9.

Anderson JWK: "Long term effects of high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets on glucose and lipid metabolism." Diabetes Care. 1978;1:77-82.


Saturated Fat and Oxidized Fats

Dwyer JH, et al. "Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase promoter genotype, dietary arachidonic acid, and atherosclerosis." N Engl J Med. January 1. 2004;350(1):29-37.

Hays JH, et al. "Effect of a high saturated fat and no-starch diet on serum lipid subfractions in patients with documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease." Mayo Clin Proc. November,2003;78:1331-1336.

de Lorgeril M, et al. "Diet and medication for heart protection in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. new concepts." Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2000;10:216-222.

Connor WE. "Harbingers of coronary heart disease: dietary saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Is chocolate benign because of its stearic acid content?" Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:951-952.

Kwiterovich PO. "The effect of dietary fat, antioxidants, and pro-oxidants on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis." J Amer Diet Assoc. 1997;97(Suppl.):S31-S41.

Kumerow FA. "Nutritional imbalance and angiotoxins as dietary risk factors in coronary heart disease." Am J Clin Nutr. 1979;32:58-83.


Garlic

Kojuri J, et al. "Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients." Lipids Health Dis. Mar1,2007.

Thomson M, et al. "Including garlic in the diet may help lower blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides." J Nutr. 2006;136(3):800S-2S.

Superko HR, Krauss RM. "Garlic powder, effect on plasma lipids, postprandial lipemia, low-density lipoprotein particle size, high-density lipoprotein subclass distribution and lipoprotein (a)." J Am Coll Cardiol. February,2000;35(2):321-326.

Munday JS, et al, "Daily supplementation with aged garlic extract, but not raw garlic, protects low density lipoprotein against in vitro oxidation." Atheroscler. 1999;143:399-404.

Orekhov AN and Grunwald J. "Effects of garlic on atherosclerosis." Nutr. 1997;13(7/8):656-663.

Steiner M, et al. "A double-blind crossover study in moderately hypercholesterolemic men that compared the effect of aged garlic extract and placebo administration on blood lipids." Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64:866-870.

Yeh YY, et al, "Cholesterol lowering effects of aged garlic extract supplementation on free-living hypercholesterolemic men consuming habitual diets." J Am Coll Nutr. 1995;13:545.

Orekhov, A, et al. "Direct anti-atherosclerosis-related effects of garlic." Ann Med. 1995;27:63-65.

Steiner M, Lin RI. "Cardiovascular and lipid changes in response to aged garlic extract ingestion." J Am Coll Nutr. October,1994;13(5):524(Abstract 21).

Warshafsky S, et al. "Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol: a meta-analysis." Ann Intern Med. October1,1993;119(7/Part I):599-605.

Kawashima Y, et al. "Clinical study of KYOLEOPIN for patients with hyperlipemia." Treat New Med. 1989;26(3):377-388.

Srivastava KC: "Effects of aqueous exacts of onion, garlic and ginger on platelet aggregation and metabolism of arachidonic acid in the blood vascular system: In vitro study." Prostaglandins Med. 1984;13:227-35.


Sugar, Insulin and Complex Carbohydrates

Maruno Y, et al. "Hyperinsulinemia in relation to hypertension and other coronary risk factors in Japanese men." Jap Heart J. September,1997;38(5):685-696.

Stout RW. "Insulin as a mitogenic factor: Role in The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease." Amer J Med. February21,1991;90:(Suppl.2A):2A-62S-2A-65S.

Ornish D, et al. "Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?" Lancet. 1990;336:129-33.


Meat Versus Soybean Products

Erdman JW Jr. "Soy protein and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the nutrition commitee of the AHA." Circulation. 2000;102:2555-2561.

Anthony MS, et al. "Soy and cardiovascular disease: cholesterol lowering and beyond." J Lab Clin Med. May,2000;135(5):396-401.

Tikkanen MJ, Adlercreutz H. "Dietary soy-derived isoflavone phytoestrogens: could they have a role in coronary heart disease prevention?" Biochem Pharmacol. 2000;60(1):1-5.

Cassidy A, Griffin B. "Phyto-oestrogens: a potential role in the prevention of CHD?" Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58:193-199.

Moghadasian MH, Frohlich JJ. "Effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism in atherosclerosis: clinical and experimental evidence." Am J Med. 1999;107:588-594.

"Soy protein health claim approved by FDA." Nutr Week. November5,1999;29(42):3-6.

Nilausen K, Meinertz H. "Variable lipemic response to dietary soy protein in healthy, normolipemic men." Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(Suppl):1380S-1384S.

Lichtenstein AH. "Soy protein, isoflavones and cardiovascular disease risk." J Nutr. 1998;128:1589-1592.

Sacks FM, et al. "Effects of ingestion of meat on plasma cholesterol of vegetarians." JAMA. 1981;246:640-4.


Cold Water Fish

Jancin B. "Fish intake reduces atherosclerosis progression." Fam Prac News. January1,2004:52.

Schmidt EB, et al. "n-3 fatty acids from fish and coronary artery disease: implications for public health." Public Health Nutr. 2000;3(1):91-98.

Oomen CM, et al. "Fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality in Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands." Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151(10):999-1006.

Burr ML, et al. "Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fiber intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART)". Lancet. 1989;334:757-61.


Trans-Fatty Acids

Troisi R, et al. "Trans-fatty acid intake in relation to serum lipid concentrations in adult men." Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:1019-1024.


Wine and Grape Juice

Avellone G, et al, "Effects of moderate Sicilian red wine consumption on inflammatory biomarkers of atherosclerosis." Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60(1):41-7.

Ou HC, et al. "Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound in red wine, protects against oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity in endothelial cells." Clin Chim Acta. 2006;364(1-2):196-204.

van Golde PHM, et al. "The role of alcohol in the anti low density lipoprotein oxidation activity of red wine." Atherosclerosis. 1999;147:365-370.

Trevithick CC, et al. "Is ethanol an important antioxidant in alcoholic beverages associated with risk reduction of cataract and atherosclerosis?" Redox Report. 1999;4(3):89-93.

Droste T. "Purple grape juice fights atherosclerosis." Med Trib. October,1999;2:10.

Llerena IR, Huerta EM. "Wine and the heart." Rev Esp Cardiol. June,1998;51(6):435-449.

Folts JD, et al. "Inhibition of platelet activity with red wine and grape products." Biofactors. 6(4):411-4;1997.

Moore RD, et al. "Moderate alcohol consumption and coronary artery disease. A review." Med. 1986;65:242-67.


Tea

Steptoe A, et al. "The effects of chronic tea intake on platelet activation and inflammation: A double-blind placebo controlled trial." Atherosclerosis. Sep28,2006.

Geleijnse JM, et al. "Tea flavonoids may protect against atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study." Arch Intern Med. October11,1999;159:2170-2174.

Segall JJ. "Antioxidants in wine and tea." J R Soc Med. December,1999;92.


Cocoa

Baba S, et al. "Plasma LDL and HDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL concentrations are altered in normo- and hypercholesterolemic humans after intake of different levels of cocoa powder." J Nutr. 2007;137(6):1436-41.


Milk

Segall JJ. "An epidemiological study of the relation between milk consumption and ischaemic heart disease." Proc Nutr Soc. 1980;39:77A.

Oster KA. "The treatment of bovine xanthine oxidase initiated atherosclerosis by folic acid." Clin Res. 1976;24:521A.


Vitamin and Mineral References


Antioxidants

Levy AP, et al. "The effect of vitamin therapy on the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis varies by haptoglobin type in postmenopausal women." Diabetes Care. April 2004;27(4):925-930.

Salonen JT, et al. "Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis." J Int Med. 2000;248:377-386.

Dhalla NS, et al. "Role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases." J Hypertens. 2000;18(6):655-673.

Hines SE. "Do antioxidants prevent heart disease?" Patient Care. June30,2000;74-93.

Hodis HN, et al. "Antioxidant vitamins and atherosclerosis." Primary Secondary Prev Nutr. 2000;6:91-115.

Dubick MA, et al, "Antioxidant enzyme activity in human abdominal aortic aneurysmal and occlusive disease." PSEBM. 1999;220:39-45.

Woodside JV, et al. "Antioxidants, but not B-group vitamins, increase the resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation: a randomized, factorial design, placebo-controlled trial." Atheroscler. 1999;144:419-427.

Biesalski HK. "The role of antioxidative vitamins in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease." Intl J Vit Nutr Res. 1999;69(3):179-186.

Reinisch N, et al. "Association of high plasma antioxidant capacity with new lesion formation in carotid atherosclerosis: a prospective study." Eur J Clin Invest. 1998;28:787-792.

Jancin B. "Vitamin E and C may slow atherosclerosis." Fam Prac News. October15,1999:8.

Sun Y, et al. "Effects of antioxidant vitamins C and E on atherosclerosis in lipid-fed rabbits." Cardiol. 1998;89:189-194.

Siow RCM, et al. "Vitamin C protects human arterial smooth muscle cells against atherogenic lipoproteins: effects of antioxidant vitamins C and E on oxidized LDL-induced adaptive increases in cystine transport and glutathione." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. October,1998;18:1662-1670.

Mahfouz MM, et al. "Effect of cholesterol-rich diets with and without added vitamins E and C on the severity of atherosclerosis in rabbits." Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:1240-1249.

Mezzetti A, et al. "Antioxidants' role in atherosclerosis." Nutr Report. 1995;April,13(4):21\"Vitamins E, C and lipid peroxidation in plasma and arterial tissue of smokers and non-smokers." Atheroscler. 1995;112(1):91-99.

Hodis HN, et al. "Serial coronary angiographic evidence that antioxidant vitamin intake reduces progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis." JAMA. 1995;273:1849-1854.


Beta-Carotene and Other Carotenoids

Rissanen TH, et al. "Low serum lycopene concentration is associated with an excess incidence of acute coronary events and stroke: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study." Br J Nutr. 2001;85:749-754.

Bradbury J, et al. "Lutein may help reduce atherosclerosis." Circulation. 2001;103:2922-2927.

Klipstein-Grobush K, et al. "Serum carotenoids and atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study." Atherosclerosis. 2000;148:49-56.

Schwarzacher SP, et al. "Antioxidant diet preserves endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in resistance arteries of hypercholesterolemic rabbits exposed to environmental tobacco smoke." J Card Pharmacol. 1998;31(5):649-653.

Sun G, et al. "Beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol inhibit the development of atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits." Intl J Vit Nutr Res. 1997;67:155-163.

Fuhrman B, et al. "Tomato lycopene and beta-carotene inhibit low density lipoprotein oxidation and this effect depends on the lipoprotein vitamin E content." Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 1997;7:433-443.

Rapola JM, et al. "Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris." JAMA. 1996;275:693-698.


Vitamin B3

Accinni R, et al. "Effects of combined dietary supplementation on oxidative and inflammatory status in dyslipidemic subjects." Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006;16(2):121-7.

Insull W Jr, et al. "Efficacy of extended-release niacin with lovastatin for hypercholesterolemia: assessing all reasonable doses with innovative surface graph analysis." Arch Intern Med. May24,2004;164:1121-1127.

Zema MJ. "Gemfibrozil, nicotinic acid and combination therapy in patients with isolated hypoalphalipoproteinemia: a randomized, open-label, crossover study." J Am Coll Cardiol. March1,2000;35(3):640-646.

Guyton JR. "Effect of niacin on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease." Am J Cardiol. December17,1998;82(12A):18U-23U.

Cashin-Hemphill L, et al. "Beneficial effects of colestipol-niacin on coronary atherosclerosis: A four-year follow-up." JAMA. 1990;December19,264(23):3013-3017.


Vitamin B5

Arsenio L, et al. "Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemia." Clin Ther. 1986;8:537-545.

Bertolini S, et al. "Lipoprotein changes induced by pantethine in hyperlipoproteinemic patients: adults and children." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1986;24:630-637.

Maloli M, et al. "Effect of pantethine on the subfractions of HDL in dyslipemic patients." Curr Ther Res. 1984;35:307.

Gaddi A, et al. "Controlled evaluation of pantethine, a natural hypolipidemic C compound, in patients with different forms of hyperlipoproteinemia." Atheroscler. 1984;50:73.

Galeone F, et al. "The lipid-lowering effect of pantethine in hyperlipidemic patients in a clinical investigation." Curr Ther Res. 1983;34:383.

Minami M, et al. "Positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effect of pantethine on isolated cardiac muscle of guinea-pigs." Experientia. 1983;39:1028.

Maggi GC, et al. "Pantethine: a physiological lipomodulating agent, in the treatment of hyperlipidemias." Curr Ther Res. 1982;32:380.


Vitamin B6

Tungkasereerak P, et al. "Effect of short-term folate and vitamin B supplementation on blood homocysteine level and carotid artery wall thickness in chronic hemodialysis patients." J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89(8):1187-93.

Mulvaney DA, Seronde J. "Electrocardiographic changes in vitamin B6 deficient rats." Cardiovasc Res. 1979;1 3:506-513.

Levene Cl, Murray JC. "The aetiological role of maternal vitamin B6 deficiency in the development of atherosclerosis." Lancet. 1977; 1:628-630.

Rhinehart JF, Greenberg LD. "Vitamin B6 deficiency in the Rhesus monkey, with particular reference to the occurrence of atherosclerosis, dental caries and hepatic cirrhosis." Am J Gun Nutr. 1956;4:318-325.


Folate

Green R, Miller JW. "Folate deficiency beyond megaloblastic anemia: hyperhomocysteinemia and other manifestations of dysfunctional folate status." Semin Hematol. January,1999;36(1):47-64.

Morrison HI, et al. "Serum folate and risk of fatal coronary heart disease." JAMA. 1996;275:1893-1986.

Kopjas TL. "Folic acid for the treatment of chronic leg ulcers in elderly patients." J Am Geriatr Soc. 1968;16:338-342.

Kopjas TL. "Effect of folic acid on collateral circulation in diffuse chronic arteriosclerosis." J Am Geriatr Soc. 1966;14:1187-1192.

Kopjas TL. "Treatment of chronic diffuse peripheral arteriosclerotic vascular disease with folic acid and vitamin B and C." J Am Geriatr Soc. 1965;13:935-937.


Vitamin B6, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12

Vermeulen EGJ, et al. "Effect of homocysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B6 on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. February12,2000;355:517-522.

Robinson K. "Homocysteine, B vitamins, and risk of cardiovascular disease." Heart. 2000;83:127-130.

Cattaneo M. "Hyperhomocysteinaemia and atherothrombosis." Ann Med. 2000;32(Suppl. 1):46-52.

Newman PE. "Can reduced folic acid and vitamin B12 levels cause deficient DNA methylation producing mutations which initiate atherosclerosis?" Med Hypoth. 1999;53(5):421-424.

van der Griend R. "Combination of low-dose folic acid and pyridoxine for treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with premature arterial disease and their relatives." Atheroscler. 1999;143:177-183.

Peterson JC and Spence JD. "Vitamins and progression of atherosclerosis in hyper-homocysteinemia." Lancet. January24,1998;351;263.

Siri PW, et al. "Vitamins B6, B12, and folate: association with plasma total homocysteine and risk of coronary atherosclerosis." J Am Col Nutr. 1998;17(5):435-441.

"Preventing the emergency: vitamins and coronary heart disease." Emerg Med. December,1998;30(12):35-37.

Robinson K, et al. "Hyperhomocysteinemia confers an independent increased risk of atherosclerosis in end-stage renal disease and is closely linked to plasma folate and pyridoxine concentrations." Circula. 1996;December1,94(11):2743-2748.


Vitamin C

Das S, et al. "Effect of ascorbic acid on prevention of hypercholesterolemia induced atherosclerosis." Mol Cell Biochem. Feb14,2006.

Larkin M. "Vitamin C depletion linked to inflammation in peripheral artery disease." Lancet. April14,2001;357:1184.

Khaw K-T, et al. "Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in Epic-Norfolk Prospective Study: a prospective population study." Lancet. March3,2001;357:657-663.

Tousoulis D, et al. "Vitamin C increases nitric oxide availability in coronary atherosclerosis." Ann Int Med. July20,1999;131(2):156-157.

Jacob RA. "Vitamin C nutriture and risk of atherosclerotic heart disease." Nutr Rev. November,1998;56(11):334-337.

Gey KF, et al. "Poor plasma status of carotene and vitamin C is associated with higher mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke: Basel Prospective Study." Gun Invest. 1993;71:3-6.

Enstrom JE, et al. "Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population." Epidemiol. 1992;3:1 94-202.


Vitamin E

Antonelli-Incalzi R, et al. "Association between nutrient intake and peripheral artery disease: results from the InCHIANTI study." Atherosclerosis. 2006;186(1):200-6.

Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. "Plasma and dietary vitamin E in relation to incidence of type 2 diabetes: The Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS)." Diabetes Care. December 2002;25(12):2172-2177.

Cherubini A, et al. "High vitamin E plasma levels and low low-density lipoprotein oxidation are associated with the absence of atherosclerosis in octogenarians." J Am Geriatr Soc. May,2001;49(5):651-654.

Bron D, Asmis R. "Vitamin E and the prevention of atherosclerosis." Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2001;71(1):18-24.

Mitchell S. "Vitamin E reduces risk of heart disease in men." Fam Prac News. April15,2001:10.

Feki M, et al. "Vitamin E and coronary heart disease in Tunisians." Clin Chem. 2000;46(9):1401-1405.

Arrol S, et al. "Vitamin E supplementation increases the resistance of both LDL and HDL to oxidation and increases cholesteryl ester transfer activity." Atherosclerosis. 2000;150:129-134.

Takanami Y, et al. "Vitamin E supplementation and endurance exercise: are there benefits." Sports Med. February,2000;29(2):73-83.

Raal FJ, et al. "Efficacy of vitamin E compared with either Simvastatin or Atorvastatin in preventing the progression of atherosclerosis in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia." Am J Cardiol. December1,1999;84:1344-1346.

Upston JM, et al. "Tocopherol-mediated peroxidation of lipoproteins: implications for vitamin E as a potential antiatherogenic supplement." FASEB J. June,1999;13:977-994.

Mottram P, et al, "Vitamin E improves arterial compliance in middle-aged men and women." Atheroscler. 1999;145:399-404.

Kinlay S, et al. "Plasma -tocopherol and coronary endothelium-dependent vasodilator function." Circ. July20,1999;100:219-221.

Spencer AP, et al. "Vitamin E and coronary artery disease." Arch Intern Med. June28,1999;159:1313-1320.

Mune M, et al. "Effect of vitamin E on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in ESRD patients." Kidney Intl. 1999;56(Suppl.71):S126-S129.

Chan AC. "Vitamin E and atherosclerosis." J Nutr. 1998;128:1593-1596.

Mugge A. "The role of reactive oxygen species in atherosclerosis." Z Kardiol. 1998;87(11):851-864.

Porkkala-Sarataho EK, et al. "A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of 200 mg -tocopherol on the oxidation resistance of atherogenic lipoproteins." Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:1034-1041.

Tesoriere L, et al. "Oxidation resistance of LDL is correlated with vitamin E status in beta-thalassemia intermedia." Atheroscler. 1998;137:429-435.

Stephens NG, et al. "Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS)." Lancet. 1996;347:781- 786.

Stampfer MJ, et al. "Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women." N Eng J Med. 1993;328:1444-1449.

Rimm EB, et al. "Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men." N Eng J Med. 1993;328:1450-1456.

Axford-Gately RA, Wilson GJ. "Myocardial infarct size reduction by single high dose or repeated low dose vitamin E supplementation in rabbits." Can J Cardiol. 1993;9:94-97.

Ferns GAA, et al. "Vitamin E: the evidence for an anti-atherogenic role." Artery. 1993;20:61-94.

Jialal I, Grundy SM. "Effect of dietary supplementation with alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein." J Lipid Res. 1992;33:899-906.

Verlangieri AJ, Bush MJ. "Effects of d-alpha-tocopherol supplementation on experimentally induced primate atherosclerosis." J Am Coil Nutr. 1992;11:131-138.

Axford-Gatley RA, et al. "Reduction of experimental myocardial infarct size by oral administration of alpha-tocopherol." Cardiovasc Res. 1991;25:89-92.

Howard DR, et al. "Vitamin E does not modify HDL-cholesterol." Am J Clin Pathol. 1982;77:86-89.

Hermann WJ, et al. "The effect of tocopherol on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol." Am J Gun Pathol. 1979;72:848-852.

Haeger K. "Long-time treatment of intermittent claudication with vitamin E." Am J Clin Nutr. 1974;27:1179-1181.

Kawahara H. "Alpha-tocopherol in prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis." Surg. 1959;46:768.

Hove EL, et al. "The effect of tocopherol and of fat on the resistance of rats to anoxic anoxia." Arch Biochem. 1945;8:395-404.


Selenium, Vitamin E

Schwenke DC, Behr SR. "Vitamin E combined with selenium inhibits atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits independently of effects on plasma cholesterol concentrations." Circ Res. August24,1998;83:366-377.

Suadicani P, et al. "Serum selenium concentration and risk of ischaemic heart disease in a prospective cohort study of 3000 males." Atheroscler. 1992;96:33-42.

Wojcicki J, et al. "Effect of selenium and vitamin E on the development of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits." Atheroscler. 1991;87:9-16.

Kok FJ, et al. "Decreased selenium levels in acute myocardial infarction." JAMA. 1989;261:1161-1164.

Ikram H, et al. "The role of selenium deficiency in occidental dilated cardiomyopathy." NZ Med J. 1989;102:100-102.

Korpela H, et al. "Effect of selenium supplementation after acute myocardial infarction." Rca Gommun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1989;65:249-252.

Collipp PJ, Chen SY. "Cardiomyopathy and selenium deficiency in a two year old." N Eng J Med. 1981;304:1304-1305.

Welsh SO, et al. "Selenium in self-selected diets of Maryland residents." J Am Diet Assoc. 1981;79:277-285.

Keshan Disease Research Group. "Epidemiologic studies on the etiologic relationship of selenium and Keshan disease." Chin Med J. 1979;92:477-482.

Keshan Disease Research Group. "Observations on effect of sodium selenite in prevention of Keshan disease." Chin Med J. 1979;92:471-476.

Cawley GD, Bradley R. "Sudden death in calves associated with acute myocardial degeneration and selenium deficiency." Vet Rec. 1978; 103:239-240.

Shamberger RJ, Willis CE. "Epidemiological studies on selenium and heart disease." Fed Proc. 1976;35:578(Abs #2061).


Zinc, Copper, Manganese

Ren M, et al. "Zinc supplementation decreases the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits." Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;41(2):222-5.

Saari JT. "Copper deficiency and cardiovascular disease: role of peroxidation, glycation, and nitration." Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000;78:848-855.

Klevay LM, et al. "Trace element and mineral nutrition in ischemicheart disease." Clinical Nutrition of the Essential Trace Elements and Minerals: The Guide for Health Professionals. 2000;15:251-271. Humana Press. Inc. Totowa. NJ.

Mazur A, et al. "Copper deficiency and lipoprotein oxidation." Athero. 1998;137:443-445.

Vijaya I, et al. "Trace metal analysis in the aorta with and without atherosclerotic lesions." Trace Elements and Electrolytes. 1995;12(4):200-202.

Medeiros DM, et al. "A unified perspective on copper deficiency and cardiomyopathy." Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1993;203:262-273.

VIad M, et al. "Effect of copper sulfate on experimental atherosclerosis." Biol Trace Elem Res. 1993;38:47-54.

Reiser S, et al. "Effect of copper intake on blood cholesterol and its lipoprotein distribution in men." Nutr Rep Int. 1987;36:641.

Klevay LM, et al. "Increased cholesterol in plasma in a young man during experimental copper depletion." Metab. 1984;33:1112-1118.

Bedi HK, et al. "Preventive effect of zinc on cholesterol atherosclerosis in rabbit." Assoc Physicians India. 1981;29:813-817.

Klevay IM. "Hyperuricemia in rats due to copper deficiency." Nutr Rep Int. 1980;22:617-621.

AlIen KGD, Klevay LM. "Hyperlipoproteinemia in rats due to copper deficiency." Nutr Rep Int. 1980;22:295-299.

Spencer JC. "Direct relationship between the body's copper/zinc ratio, ventricular premature beats, and sudden coronary death." Am J Clin Nutr. 1979;32:1184-1186.

Wolf WR, et al. "Daily intake of zinc and copper from self selected diets." Fed Proc. 1977;36:1 175.

Hunt CE, Canton WW. "Cardiovascular lesions associated with experimental copper deficiency in the rabbit." J Nutr. 1965;87:385.


Chromium

Abraham A. "Chromium and cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits." Ann Nutr and Metab. 1991;35:203-207

Press RI, et al. "The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human sublects." West J Med. 1990;152:41-45.

Evans GW, et al. "Cholesterol and glucose lowering effect of chromium picolinate." FASEB. 1989;3:A761.

Urberg M, et al. "Hypocholesterolemic effects of nicotinic acid and chromium supplementation." J Family Pract. 1988;27:603-606.


Magnesium

Haenni A, et al. "Atherogenic lipid fractions are related to ionized magnesium status." Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:202-207.

Purvis JR, Movahed A. "Magnesium disorders and cardiovascular diseases." Clin Cardiol. August,1992;15:556-568.

Ouchi Y, et al. "Effect of dietary magnesium on development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits." Arterioscler. 1990;10:732-737.

Parsons RS, et al. "The treatment of coronary artery disease with parenteral magnesium sulfate." Med Proc. 1959;5:487-498.

Malkiel-Shapiro B. "Further observations on parenteral magnesium sulfate therapy in coronary heart disease: a clinical appraisal." S Afr Med J. 1958;32:1211.

Malkiel-Shapiro B, et al. "Parenteral magnesium sulfate therapy in coronary heart disease." Med Proc. 1956;2:455-462.


Silicon

Loeper J, et al. "The antiatheromatous action of silicon." Atheroscler. 1979;33:397.

Schwartz K, et al. "Inverse relation of silicon in drinking water and atherosclerosis in Finland." Lancet. 1977;l:538.


Supplement References


Coenzyme Q10

Luomala M, et al. "High plasma levels of CD40 are associated with low coenzyme Q and vitamin E content of low-density lipoprotein in healthy men." Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2007;67(2):115-22.

Singh RB, et al. "Effect of coenzyme Q10 on experimental atherosclerosis and chemical composition and quality of atheroma in rabbits." Atherosclerosis. 2000;148:275-282.

Cooke JP. "Nutriceuticals for cardiovascular health." Am J Cardiol. November19,1998;82(10A):43S-46S.

Baggio E, et al. "Italian multicenter study on the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive therapy in heart failure." Niolec Aspects Med. 1994;15(Suppl):S28 5294.

Lampertico M, et al. "Italian multicenter study on the efficacy and safety of coenzyme Q10 as adjuvant therapy in heart failure." Gun Invest. 1993;71:S129-S133.

Morisco C, et al. "Effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with congestive heart failul long-term multicenter randomized study." Clin Invest. 1993;71:S134-S136.

Baggio E, et al. "Italian multicenter study on the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive therapy in heart failure (interim analysis)." Clin Invest. 1993;71:Sld Si 49.

Langsjoen PH, et al. "Long-term efficacy and safety of coenzyme Q10 therapy for idopathic dilated cardiomyopathy." Am J Cardiol. 1990;65:521-523.

Langsioen PH, et al. "Pronounced increase of survival of patients with cardiomyopathy when treated with coenzyme Q10 and conventional therapy." Int J Tis Reac. 1990; 12:163-168.

Folkers K, et al. "Biochemical rationale and myocardial tissue data on the effective therapy of cardiomyopathy with coenzyme Q10." Proc NatI Acad Sci. 1985;82:901-904.

Kamikawa T, et al. "Effects of coenzyme Q10 on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina pectoris." Am J Cardiol. 1985;56:247-251.

Langsioen PH, et al. "Response of patients in classes Ill and IV of cardiomyopathy to therapy in a blind and crossover trial with coenzyme Q10." Proc NatI Acad Sci. 1985;82:4240-4244.

Judy WV, et al. "Myocardial effects of Co-enzyme Q10 in primary heart failure." Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme 10 , Vol.4. Elsevier Science Publishers; Amsterdam, 1984:353-367.

lshiyama T, et al. "A clinical study of the effect of coenzyme Q10 on congestive heart failure." Jpn Heart J. 1976;17:32-42.

Littarru GP, et al. "Deficiency of coenzyme Q10 in human heart disease." Part I. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1972;42:291-305.


Bromelain

Taussig SJ, Nieper HA. "Bromelain: Its use in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease - Present status." J Int Ac Prev Med. VI:139-50, 1979.

Heinicke RM, et al. "Effect of bromelain (Ananase) on human platelet aggregation." Experientia. 28:844-5, 1972.


L-Carnitine

Corbucci GG, Loche F. "L-carnitine in cardiogenic shock therapy: pharmacodynamic aspects and clinical data." J Gun Pharm Res. 1993;13:87-91.

Davini P, et al. "Controlled study on L-carnitine therapeutic efficacy in post- infarction." Drugs Exptl Clin Res. 1992;18:355-365.

Poleszynski DV, Bohmer T. "Improved oxygen uptake, blood pressure and triglyceride reduction with oral L-carnitine in healthy women." J Biosocial Med Res. 1991;13(2):180-191.

Mayer G, et al. "L-Carnitine substitution in patients on chronic hemodialysis." Nephron. 1989;52:295-299.

Brevetti G, et al. "Increases in walking distance in patients with peripheral vascular disease treated with L-carnitine: a double-blind, cross-over study." Circul. 1988;77:767-773.

Orlando G, Rusconi C. "Oral L-carnitine in the treatment of chronic cardiac ischaemia in elderly patients." Clin Trials J. 1986;23:338-344.

Cherchi A, et al. "Effects of L-carnitine on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled crossover study." In J Clin Pharm Ther Toxicol. 1985;23:569-572.

Kamikawa T, et al. "Effects of L-carnitine on exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina pectoris." Jap Heart J. 1984;25:587-597.

Abdel-Aziz MT, et al. "Effect of carnitine on blood lipid patterns in diabetic patients." Nutr Rep. 1984;29:1071-1079.

Trivellato M, et al. "Carnitine deficiency as the possible etiology of idiopathic mitral valve prolapse: case study with speculative annotation." Tex Heart Inst J. 1984;11:370-376.

Pola P, et al. "Use of a physiological substance, acetyl-carnitine, in the treatment of angiospastic syndromes." Drugs Exptl Clin Res. 1984;1O:213-217.

Pola P, et al. "Statistical evaluation of long-term L-carnitine therapy in hyperlipoproteinaemias." Drugs Exptl Clin Res. 1983;9:925-934.

Suzuki Y, et al. "Effects of L-carnitine on arrhythmias during hemodialysis." Jap Heart J. 1982;23:349-359.

Pola P, et al." Carnitine in the therapy of dyslipemic patients." Curr Ther Res. 1980;27:208-216.


L-Arginine

Gellman J, et al. "L-arginine ameliorates the abnormal sympathetic response of the dysfunctional human coronary microvasculature." Angiol. 2004;55(1):1-8.

Blum A, et al. "Oral L-arginine in patients with coronary artery disease on medical management." Circulation. May 9. 2000;101:2160-2164.

Tentolouris C, et al. "Serum cholesterol level, cigarette smoking, and vasomotor responses to L-arginine in narrowed epicardial coronary arteries." Am J Cardiol. February15,2000;85:500-503.

Lonsdorfer J, et al. "L-arginine, a familiar compound...with a promising future." Sem Hop Paris. 1999;75(33-34);1255-1264.

Hutchison SJ, et al, "Effects of L-arginine on atherogenesis and endothelial dysfunction due to secondhand smoke." Hypertension. July,1999;34:44-50.

Niittynen L, et al. "Role of arginine, taurine and homocysteine in cardiovascular diseases." Ann Med. 1999;31:318-326.

Blum A, et al. "Clinical and inflammatory effects of dietary L-arginine in patients with intractable angina pectoris." Am J Cardiol. 1999:1488-1490.

Higashi Y, et al. "Effect of L-arginine infusion on systemic and renal hemodynamics in hypertensive patients." Am J Hypertens. January,1999;12(1 part 1):8-15.

Schulze-Neick I, et al. "L-arginine and substance P reverse the pulmonary endothelial dysfunction caused by congenital heart surgery." Circulation. August 17,1999;100;749-755.

Campisi R, et al. "L-arginine normalizes coronary vasomotion in long-term smokers." Circulation. February2,1999;99:491-497.

Tenenbaum A, et al. "L-arginine: rediscovery in progress." Cardiol. 1998;90:153-159.

Boger RH, et al, "Dietary L-arginine and alpha-tocopherol reduce vascular oxidative stress and preserve endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits via different mechanisms." Atheroscler. 1998;141:31-43.

Bode-Boger SM, et al. "L-arginine-induced vasodilation in healthy humans: pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship." Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1998;46:489-497.

Cooke JP. "Nutriceuticals for cardiovascular health." Am J Cardiol. November19,1998;82(10A):43S-46S.

Penttinen J, et al. "Does plasma L-arginine level play a role in regulation of blood pressure during exercise and autonomic nervous function?" Clin Physiol. 1998;18(6):539-543.

de Lorgeril M. "Dietary arginine and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases." Cardiovascular Res. 1998;37:560-563.

Lerman A, et al. "Long-term L-arginine supplementation improves small-vessel coronary endothelial function in humans." Circulation. 1998;97:2123-2128.

Theilmeier G, et al. "Adhesiveness of mononuclear cells in hypercholesterolemic humans is normalized by dietary L-arginine." Arteriosclerosis. Thrombosis and Vascular Biol. December,1997;17(12):3557-3564.

Tousoulis D, et al. "Coronary stenosis dilatation induced by L-arginine." Lancet. 1997;349:12-13.

Boger, et al. "Dietary L-arginine reduces the progression of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits: comparison with lovastatin." Circulation. August19,1997;96(4):1282-1290.

Ceremuzynski, et al. "Effect of supplemental oral L-arginine on exercise capacity in patients with stable angina pectoris." Am J Cardiol. August1,1997;80:331-333.

Chowienczyk P, Ritter J. "Arginine: no more than a simple amino acid?" Lancet. September27,1997;350:901-902.

Tsao, PS. "Arginine: a new therapy for atherosclerosis?" Circulation. January21,1997;95(2):311-312.

Quyyumi, et al. "Nitric oxide activity in the atherosclerotic human coronary circulation." J AM Coll Cardiol. 1997;29(2):308-317.

Wolf A, et al. "Dietary L-arginine supplementation normalizes platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic humans." J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;29:479-485.

Kubota, et al. "L-arginine increases exercise-induced vasodilation of the forearm in patients with heart failure." Jap Circ J. 1997;61:471-480.

Tousoulis D, et al. "Coronary stenosis dilatation induced by L-arginine." Lancet. June21,1997;349:1812-1813.

Huk I, et al. "L-arginine treatment alters the kinetics of nitric oxide and superoxide release and reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle." Circulation. July15,1997;96(2):667-675.

Egashira K, et al. "Effects of L-arginine supplementation on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in patients with angina pectoris and normal coronary arteriograms." Circulation. July15,1996;94(2):130-134.

Clarkson JE, et al. "Oral L-arginine improves endothelium-dependentdilation in hypercholesterolemic young adults." J Clin Invest. 1996;97:1989-1994.

Wang B-Y, et al. "Arginine restores nitric oxide activity and inhibits monocyte accumulation after vascular injury in hypercholesterolemic rabbits." J AM Coll Cardiol. 1996;28:1573-1579.

Davies, et al. "L-arginine supplementation improves venous endothelial cell but not smooth muscle cell dysfunction induced by prolonged diet-induced hypercholesterolemia." J Invest Surg. 1996;9:415-422.

Rath M, Niedzwiecki A. "Nutritional supplement program halts progression of early coronary atherosclerosis documented by ultrafast computed tomography." J Applied Nutr. 1996;48(3):67-78.

Jeremy RW, et al. "Effects of dietary L-arginine on atherosclerosis and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit: response according to treatment duration, anatomic site, and sex." Circulation. 1996;94:498-506.

Chin-Dusting JPF, et al. "Effects of an in vivo and an in vitro l-arginine supplementation on healthy human vessels." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1996;28:158-166.

Bode-Boger SM, et al. "L-arginine induces nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in patients with critical limb ischemia: a randomized, controlled study." Circulation. January1,1996; 93(1):85-90.

Carrier M, et al. "Effect of L-arginine on metabolic recovery of the ischemic myocardium." Ann Thoracic Surg. 1996;61:1651-1657.

Dusting GJ. "Nitric oxide and cardiovascular disorders." J Vascular Res. 1995;32:143-161.

Loscalzo J. "Nitric oxide in vascular disease." New Eng J Med. July27.1995;333(4):251-253.

Engelman DT, et al. "L-arginine reduces endothelial inflammation and myocardial stunning during ischemia/reperfusion." Ann Thoracic Surg. 1995;60:1275-1281.

Hurson AB, et al. "Metabolic effects of arginine in a healthy elderly population." J Parenteral Enteral Nutr. 1995;19(3):227-230.

Amrani M, et al. "L-arginine reverses low coronary reflow and enhances postischemic recovery of cardiac mechanical function." Cardiovascular Res. 1995;200-304.

Hamon M, et al. "Long-term oral administration of l-arginine reduces intimal thickening and enhances neoendothelium-dependent acetylcholine-induced relaxation after arterial injury." Circulation. September,1994;90(3):1357-1362.

Tarry WC, Makhoul RG. "L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and reduces intimal hyperplasia after balloon angioplasty." Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis. 1994;14:938-943.

Hirooka TI, et al. "Effects of L-arginine on impaired acetylcholine-induced and ischemic vasodilation of the forearm in patients with heart failure." Circulation. August,1994;90(20):658-668.

Korbut R, et al. "Effect of L-arginine on plasminogen-activator inhibitor in hypertensive patients with hypercholesterolemia." New Eng J Med. January28,1993;328(4):287-288.

Luscher TF, Haefeli WE. "L-arginine in the clinical arena: tool or remedy?" Circulation. May,1993;87(5):1746-1748.

Dubois-Rande J-L, et al. "Effects of infusion of L-arginine into the left anterior descending coronary artery on acetylcholine-induced vasoconstriction of human atheromatous coronary arteries." Am J Cardiol. November15,1992;70:1269-1275.


Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Balk EM, et al. "Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review." Atherosclerosis. 2006;189(1):19-30.

Hu FB. "The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease." Drugs of Today. 2001;37(1):49-56.

Angerer P, von Schacky C. "n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the cardiovascular system." Curr Opin Lipidol. 2000;11:57-63.

von Schacky C, et al. "The effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on coronary atherosclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial," Ann Intern Med. April6,1999;130(7):554-562.

Seljeflot I, et al. "Procoagulant activity and cytokine expression in whole blood cultures from patients with atherosclerosis supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids." Thromb Haemost. 1999;81:566-570.

Hojo N, et al. "Effect of serum fatty acid composition on coronary atherosclerosis in Japan." Intl J Cardiol. 1998;66:31-38.

Mizutani M, et al. "Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit migration of human vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro." Life Sci. 1997;61(19):269-274.

Berrettini M, et al. "Increased plasma levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) after N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in patients with chronic atherosclerotic disease." Thrombosis and Hemostasis. 1996;75(3):395-400.

Christensen JH, et al. "n-3 Fatty acids and ventricular extrasystoles in patients with ventricular tachyarrythmias." Nutr Res. 1995; 15:1-8.

Shahar E, et al. "Dietary n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." N Eng J Med. July28,1994;331:228-233.

Shahar E, et al. "Association of fish intake and dietary N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with ahypocoagulable profile: The atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study." Arterioscler and Thrombos. 1993;August,13(8):1205-1212.

Valek J, et al. "Serum linoleic acid and cardiovascular death in postinfarction middle-aged men." Atheroscler. 1985;54:1 11-118.

Saynor R, et al. "The long-term effect of dietary supplementation with fish lipid concentrate on serum lipids, bleeding time, platelets and angina." Atheroscler. 1984;50:3-10.

Kopjas TL. "Treatment of chronic diffuse peripheral arteriosclerotic vascular disease with folic acid and vitamin B and C." J Am Geriatr Soc. 1965;13:935-937.


Omega-6 Fatty Acids

Valek J et al. "Serum linoleic acid and cardiovascular death in postinfarction middle aged men." Atheroscler. 1985;54:111-118.


Glucosamine Sulfate

Nakazawa K et al. "The therapeutic effect of chondroitin polysulphate in edlerly atherosclerotic patients." J Intl Med Res. 1978;6:217-225.


Red Yeast Rice

Wei W, et al. "Hypolipidemic and anti-atherogenic effects of long-term Cholestin (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice, red yeast rice) in cholesterol-fed rabbits." J Nutr Biochem. 2003;14, 314-8.

Hsieh P-S, Tai Y-H. "Aqueous extract of Monascus purpureus M9011 prevents and reverses fructose-induced hypertension in rats." J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:3945-50.

Man RY, et al. "Cholestin inhibits cholesterol synthesis and secretion in hepatic cells (HepG2)." Mol Cell Biochem. 2002;233, 153-8.

Keithley JK, et al. "A pilot study of the safety and efficacy of cholestin in treating HIV-related dyslipidemia." Nutr. 2002;18, 201-4.

Prasad GV. "Rhabdomyolysis due to red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) in a renal transplant recipient." Transplantation. 2002;27:1200-1.

Heber D, et al. "An analysis of nine proprietary Chinese red yeast rice dietary supplements: implications of variability in chemical profile and contents." J Altern Complement Med. April,2001;7(2):133-9.

Patrick L, Uzick M. "Cardiovascular disease: C-reactive protein and the inflammatory disease paradigm: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, alpha- tocopherol, red yeast rice, and olive oil polyphenols. A review of the literature." Altern Med Rev. 2001;6, 248-71.

Ma, J et al. "Constituents of red yeast rice, a traditional Chinese food and medicine." J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:5220-25.

Heber D, et al. "Cholesterol-lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red-yeast-rice dietary supplement." Am J Clin Nutr. February,1999;69(2):231-6.

Havel RJ. "Dietary supplement or drug? The case of Cholestin." Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69, 175-6.

Li C, et al. "Monascus purpureus-fermented rice (red yeast rice): A natural food product that lowers blood cholesterol in animal models of hypercholesterolemia." Nutr Res. 1998;18:71-81.

Wang, J et al. "Multicenter clinical trial of the serum lipid-lowering effects of a Monascus purpureus (red yeast) rice preparation from traditional Chinese medicine." Curr Ther Res. 1997;58:964-78.


Botanical References


Medicago sativa

Malinow MR, et al. "Effect of alfalfa meal on shrinkage (regression) of atherosclerotic plaques during cholesterol feeding in monkeys." Atheroscler. May,1978;30(1):27-43.

Malinow MR. "Alfalfa." Atheroscler. 1973;30:27-43.


Salvia miltiorrhiza

Mashour NH, et al. "Herbal medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease: clinical considerations." Arch Intern Med. November9,1998;158:2225-2234.

Ming-Shi S. "Increase of vitamin E content in LDL and reduction of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits by a water-soluble antioxidant-rich fraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998;18:481-486.

Wang BS, et al. "Reduction of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by isovolumic hemodilution." Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. May-Jun,1997;17(3):181-6.

Yuan J, et al. "116 cases of coronary angina pectoris treated with powder composed of radix ginseng, radix notoginseng and succinum." J Tradit Chin Med. Mar,1997;17(1):14-7.

Yu WG, Xu LN. "Effect of acetylsalvianolic acid A on platelet function." Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao. 1994;29(6):412-6.

Cheng YY, et al. "Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on the cardial ischemia in rats induced by ligation." Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih. Jul,1992;12(7):424-6.

Li L. Effects of svate on platelet morphology and function in patients with coronary heart disease and hypertension." Chung Hua Hsin Hsueh Kuan Ping Tsa Chih. Jun,1991;19(3):183-5.

Cheng YY, et al. "Prevention and treatment of isoproterenol induced ventricular fibrillation in rats by aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza." Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih. Sep,1991;11(9):543-6.

Li ZT, et al. "Chemical studies of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba." Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao. 1991;26(3):209-13.

Zhu P. "Experimental study on myocardial protection with verapamil and salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge cardioplegia." Chung Hua Wai Ko Tsa Chih. Jan,1990;28(1):9-12.

Zhou W, Ruigrok TJ. "Protective effect of danshen during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion: an isolated rat heart study." Am J Chin Med. 1990;18(1-2):19-24.

Cheng YY, et al. "Protective action of Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous extract on chemically induced acute myocardial ischemia in rats." Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih. Oct,1990;10(10):609-11.

Xu HT, et al. "Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on the left ventricular diastolic function in coronary artery stenosis." Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih. Dec,1990;10(12):737-9.

Jiang SS, et al. "Changes in the deformability of erythrocytes and 2,3-DPG in coronary artery stenosis." Chung Hua Hsin Hsueh Kuan Ping Tsa Chih. Oct,1989;17(5):288-9.

Luo HW, et al. "Platelet aggregation inhibitors from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge." Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao. Nov,1988;23(11):830-4.

Yu GR. "Clinical and experimental study on the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on microcirculation and 2,3 diphosphoglyceric acid in patients with coronary heart disease." Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih. Oct,1988;8(10):596-8.

Sun RY. "Dilative effect of injection of radix Angelicae, Salvia miltiorrhiza and ligustrazin on the pulmonary vessels in rats." Chung Kuo I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Yuan Hsueh Pao. Feb,1988;10(1):40-44.

Shi YD. "Anti-coagulation effect in vitro of danshan and its three chemical extracts." Chung Yao Tung Pao. July,1986;11(7):48-50.


Zingiber officinale

Bhandari U, et al. "The protective action of ethanolic ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in cholesterol fed rabbits." J Ethnopharmacol. Jun,1998;61(2):167-71.

Bordia A, et al. "Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. May,1997;56(5):379-84.

Nagano T, et al. "New curcuminoids isolated from Zingiber cassumunar protect cells suffering from oxidative stress: a flow-cytometric study using rat thymocytes and H2O2." Jap J Pharmacol. Dec,1997;75(4):363-70.

Krishnakantha TP, Lokesh BR. "Scavenging of superoxide anions by spice principles." Indian J Biochem Biophys. Apr,1993;30(2):133-4.

Tanabe M, et al. "Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitory component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). Apr,1993;41(4):710-3.

Verma SK, et al. "Effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in man." Indian J Med Res. Oct,1993;98:240-2.

Cao ZF, et al. "Scavenging effects of ginger on superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical." Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih. Dec,1993;18(12):750-1.

Gujaral S, et al. "Effect of ginger (zingiber officinale roscor) oleoresin on serum and hepatic cholesterol levels in cholesterol fed rats." Nutr Rep Intl. 1978;17:183-9.


Crataegus oxycantha

al Makdessi S, et al. "Protective effect of Crataegus oxyacantha against reperfusion arrhythmias after global no-flow ischemia in the rat heart." Basic Res Cardiol. Apr,1999;94(2):71-7.

Chatterjee SS, et al. "In vitro and in vivo studies on the cardioprotective action of oligomeric procyanidins in a Crataegus extract of leaves and blooms." Arzneimittelforschung. Jul,1997;47(7):821-5.

al Makdessi S, et al. "Myocardial protection by pretreatment with Crataegus oxyacantha: an assessment by means of the release of lactate dehydrogenase by the ischemic and reperfused Langendorff heart." Arzneimittelforschung. Jan,1996;46(1):25-7.

Weihmayr T, Ernst E. "Therapeutic effectiveness of Crataegus." Fortschr Med. Jan20,1996;114(1-2):27-9.

Weikl A, et al. "Crataegus Special Extract WS 1442. Assessment of objective effectiveness in patients with heart failure." Fortschr Med. Aug30,1996;114(24):291-6.

Leuchtgens H. "Crataegus Special Extract WS 1442 in NYHA II heart failure. A placebo controlled randomized double-blind study." Fortschr Med. Jul20,1993;111(20-21):352-4.

Nasa Y, et al. "Protective effect of crataegus extract on the cardiac mechanical dysfunction in isolated perfused working rat heart." Arzneimittelforschung. Sep,1993;43(9):945-9.

O'Conolly VM, et al. "Treatment of cardiac performance (NYHA stages I to II) in advanced age with standardized crataegus extract." Fortschr Med. 1986;104:805-808.

Massoni G. "On the use of hawthorn extract (Crataegus) in the treatment of certain ischemic myocardial diseases in old age." G Gerontol. Sep,1968;16(9):979-84.

Wolkerstorfer H. "Treatment of heart disease with a digoxin-crataegus combination." Munch Med Wochenschr. Feb25,1966;108(8):438-41.


Ginkgo biloba

DeFeudis FV (Ed.) "Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761): pharmacological activies and clinical applications." Elsevier, Paris; 1991.


Homeopathy References


Other Treatment References


Exercise

Rauramaa R, et al. "Effects of aerobic physical exercise on inflammation and atherosclerosis in men: The DNASCO Study: A six-year randomized, controlled trial." Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(12):1007-1014.

Smith JK, et al. "Long-term exercise and atherogenic activity of blood mononuclear cells in persons at risk of developing ischemic heart disease." JAMA. May 12,1999;281(18):1722-1727.

Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. "Intensity and amount of physical activity in relation to insulin sensitivity: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study." JAMA. March4,1998;279(9):669-674.

Parks EJ, et al. "Reduced oxidative susceptibility of LDL from patients participating in an intensive atherosclerosis treatment program." Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:778-785.


Stress

Nordstrom CK, et al. "Work-related stress and early atherosclerosis." Epidemiol. March,2001;12(2):180-185.

Krantz DS, et al. "Effects of mental stress in patients with coronary artery disease: evidence and clinical implications." JAMA. April12,2000;283(14):1800-1802.

Castillo-Richmond A, et al. "Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive african americans." Stroke. March,2000;31:568-573.

Shapiro PA, et al. "Cerebral activation, hostility, and cardiovascular control during mental stress." J Psychosom Res. 2000;48:485-491.


Water Filter

Zeighami EA et al. "Chlorination, water hardness and serum cholesterol in 46 Wisconsin communities." Int J Epid. 1990;19:49-58.


Smoking and Secondhand Smoke

McGill HC Jr, et al. "Origin of atherosclerosis in childhood and adolescence." Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(suppl):1307S-1315S.

He J, et al. "Passive smoking and the risk of coronary heart disease - a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies." N Engl J Med. March25,1999;340(12):920-926.

Cross CE, et al. "Micronutrient antioxidants and smoking." Br Med Bull. 1999;55(3):691-704.

Howard G, et al. "Cigarette smoking and progression of atherosclerosis." JAMA, January14,1998;279(2):119-124.

Valkonen M and Kuusi T. "Passive smoking induces atherogenic changes in low-density lipoprotein." Circu. 1998;97:2012-2016.

Glantz SA, Parmley WW. "Passive smoking and heart disease: mechanisms and risk." JAMA. April5,1995;273(13):1047-1053.

Kritz H, et al. "Passive smoking and cardiovascular risk." Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:1942-8.

US Dept of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health. Prima Publishing; Rockland, C; 1989.


Hypothyroid

Dagre AG, et al. "Abnormal endothelial function in female patients with hypothyroidism and borderline thyroid function." Int J Cardiol. 2007;114(3):332-8.