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Saturated Fat and Oxidized Fats
Dwyer JH, et al. "Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase promoter genotype, dietary arachidonic acid, and atherosclerosis." N Engl J Med. January 1. 2004;350(1):29-37.
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Sugar, Insulin and Complex Carbohydrates
Maruno Y, et al. "Hyperinsulinemia in relation to hypertension and other coronary risk factors in Japanese men." Jap Heart J. September,1997;38(5):685-696.
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Meat Versus Soybean Products
Erdman JW Jr. "Soy protein and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the nutrition commitee of the AHA." Circulation. 2000;102:2555-2561.
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Cold Water Fish
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Wine and Grape Juice
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Baba S, et al. "Plasma LDL and HDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL concentrations are altered in normo- and hypercholesterolemic humans after intake of different levels of cocoa powder." J Nutr. 2007;137(6):1436-41.
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Levy AP, et al. "The effect of vitamin therapy on the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis varies by haptoglobin type in postmenopausal women." Diabetes Care. April 2004;27(4):925-930.
Salonen JT, et al. "Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis." J Int Med. 2000;248:377-386.
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Biesalski HK. "The role of antioxidative vitamins in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease." Intl J Vit Nutr Res. 1999;69(3):179-186.
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Jancin B. "Vitamin E and C may slow atherosclerosis." Fam Prac News. October15,1999:8.
Sun Y, et al. "Effects of antioxidant vitamins C and E on atherosclerosis in lipid-fed rabbits." Cardiol. 1998;89:189-194.
Siow RCM, et al. "Vitamin C protects human arterial smooth muscle cells against atherogenic lipoproteins: effects of antioxidant vitamins C and E on oxidized LDL-induced adaptive increases in cystine transport and glutathione." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. October,1998;18:1662-1670.
Mahfouz MM, et al. "Effect of cholesterol-rich diets with and without added vitamins E and C on the severity of atherosclerosis in rabbits." Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:1240-1249.
Mezzetti A, et al. "Antioxidants' role in atherosclerosis." Nutr Report. 1995;April,13(4):21\"Vitamins E, C and lipid peroxidation in plasma and arterial tissue of smokers and non-smokers." Atheroscler. 1995;112(1):91-99.
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Beta-Carotene and Other Carotenoids
Rissanen TH, et al. "Low serum lycopene concentration is associated with an excess incidence of acute coronary events and stroke: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study." Br J Nutr. 2001;85:749-754.
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Fuhrman B, et al. "Tomato lycopene and beta-carotene inhibit low density lipoprotein oxidation and this effect depends on the lipoprotein vitamin E content." Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 1997;7:433-443.
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Arsenio L, et al. "Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemia." Clin Ther. 1986;8:537-545.
Bertolini S, et al. "Lipoprotein changes induced by pantethine in hyperlipoproteinemic patients: adults and children." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1986;24:630-637.
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Minami M, et al. "Positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effect of pantethine on isolated cardiac muscle of guinea-pigs." Experientia. 1983;39:1028.
Maggi GC, et al. "Pantethine: a physiological lipomodulating agent, in the treatment of hyperlipidemias." Curr Ther Res. 1982;32:380.
Tungkasereerak P, et al. "Effect of short-term folate and vitamin B supplementation on blood homocysteine level and carotid artery wall thickness in chronic hemodialysis patients." J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89(8):1187-93.
Mulvaney DA, Seronde J. "Electrocardiographic changes in vitamin B6 deficient rats." Cardiovasc Res. 1979;1 3:506-513.
Levene Cl, Murray JC. "The aetiological role of maternal vitamin B6 deficiency in the development of atherosclerosis." Lancet. 1977; 1:628-630.
Rhinehart JF, Greenberg LD. "Vitamin B6 deficiency in the Rhesus monkey, with particular reference to the occurrence of atherosclerosis, dental caries and hepatic cirrhosis." Am J Gun Nutr. 1956;4:318-325.
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Kopjas TL. "Folic acid for the treatment of chronic leg ulcers in elderly patients." J Am Geriatr Soc. 1968;16:338-342.
Kopjas TL. "Effect of folic acid on collateral circulation in diffuse chronic arteriosclerosis." J Am Geriatr Soc. 1966;14:1187-1192.
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Vitamin B6, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12
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van der Griend R. "Combination of low-dose folic acid and pyridoxine for treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with premature arterial disease and their relatives." Atheroscler. 1999;143:177-183.
Peterson JC and Spence JD. "Vitamins and progression of atherosclerosis in hyper-homocysteinemia." Lancet. January24,1998;351;263.
Siri PW, et al. "Vitamins B6, B12, and folate: association with plasma total homocysteine and risk of coronary atherosclerosis." J Am Col Nutr. 1998;17(5):435-441.
"Preventing the emergency: vitamins and coronary heart disease." Emerg Med. December,1998;30(12):35-37.
Robinson K, et al. "Hyperhomocysteinemia confers an independent increased risk of atherosclerosis in end-stage renal disease and is closely linked to plasma folate and pyridoxine concentrations." Circula. 1996;December1,94(11):2743-2748.
Das S, et al. "Effect of ascorbic acid on prevention of hypercholesterolemia induced atherosclerosis." Mol Cell Biochem. Feb14,2006.
Larkin M. "Vitamin C depletion linked to inflammation in peripheral artery disease." Lancet. April14,2001;357:1184.
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Tousoulis D, et al. "Vitamin C increases nitric oxide availability in coronary atherosclerosis." Ann Int Med. July20,1999;131(2):156-157.
Jacob RA. "Vitamin C nutriture and risk of atherosclerotic heart disease." Nutr Rev. November,1998;56(11):334-337.
Gey KF, et al. "Poor plasma status of carotene and vitamin C is associated with higher mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke: Basel Prospective Study." Gun Invest. 1993;71:3-6.
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Antonelli-Incalzi R, et al. "Association between nutrient intake and peripheral artery disease: results from the InCHIANTI study." Atherosclerosis. 2006;186(1):200-6.
Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. "Plasma and dietary vitamin E in relation to incidence of type 2 diabetes: The Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS)." Diabetes Care. December 2002;25(12):2172-2177.
Cherubini A, et al. "High vitamin E plasma levels and low low-density lipoprotein oxidation are associated with the absence of atherosclerosis in octogenarians." J Am Geriatr Soc. May,2001;49(5):651-654.
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Feki M, et al. "Vitamin E and coronary heart disease in Tunisians." Clin Chem. 2000;46(9):1401-1405.
Arrol S, et al. "Vitamin E supplementation increases the resistance of both LDL and HDL to oxidation and increases cholesteryl ester transfer activity." Atherosclerosis. 2000;150:129-134.
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Raal FJ, et al. "Efficacy of vitamin E compared with either Simvastatin or Atorvastatin in preventing the progression of atherosclerosis in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia." Am J Cardiol. December1,1999;84:1344-1346.
Upston JM, et al. "Tocopherol-mediated peroxidation of lipoproteins: implications for vitamin E as a potential antiatherogenic supplement." FASEB J. June,1999;13:977-994.
Mottram P, et al, "Vitamin E improves arterial compliance in middle-aged men and women." Atheroscler. 1999;145:399-404.
Kinlay S, et al. "Plasma à-tocopherol and coronary endothelium-dependent vasodilator function." Circ. July20,1999;100:219-221.
Spencer AP, et al. "Vitamin E and coronary artery disease." Arch Intern Med. June28,1999;159:1313-1320.
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Chan AC. "Vitamin E and atherosclerosis." J Nutr. 1998;128:1593-1596.
Mugge A. "The role of reactive oxygen species in atherosclerosis." Z Kardiol. 1998;87(11):851-864.
Porkkala-Sarataho EK, et al. "A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of 200 mg à-tocopherol on the oxidation resistance of atherogenic lipoproteins." Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:1034-1041.
Tesoriere L, et al. "Oxidation resistance of LDL is correlated with vitamin E status in beta-thalassemia intermedia." Atheroscler. 1998;137:429-435.
Stephens NG, et al. "Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS)." Lancet. 1996;347:781- 786.
Stampfer MJ, et al. "Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women." N Eng J Med. 1993;328:1444-1449.
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Axford-Gately RA, Wilson GJ. "Myocardial infarct size reduction by single high dose or repeated low dose vitamin E supplementation in rabbits." Can J Cardiol. 1993;9:94-97.
Ferns GAA, et al. "Vitamin E: the evidence for an anti-atherogenic role." Artery. 1993;20:61-94.
Jialal I, Grundy SM. "Effect of dietary supplementation with alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein." J Lipid Res. 1992;33:899-906.
Verlangieri AJ, Bush MJ. "Effects of d-alpha-tocopherol supplementation on experimentally induced primate atherosclerosis." J Am Coil Nutr. 1992;11:131-138.
Axford-Gatley RA, et al. "Reduction of experimental myocardial infarct size by oral administration of alpha-tocopherol." Cardiovasc Res. 1991;25:89-92.
Howard DR, et al. "Vitamin E does not modify HDL-cholesterol." Am J Clin Pathol. 1982;77:86-89.
Hermann WJ, et al. "The effect of tocopherol on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol." Am J Gun Pathol. 1979;72:848-852.
Haeger K. "Long-time treatment of intermittent claudication with vitamin E." Am J Clin Nutr. 1974;27:1179-1181.
Kawahara H. "Alpha-tocopherol in prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis." Surg. 1959;46:768.
Hove EL, et al. "The effect of tocopherol and of fat on the resistance of rats to anoxic anoxia." Arch Biochem. 1945;8:395-404.
Selenium, Vitamin E
Schwenke DC, Behr SR. "Vitamin E combined with selenium inhibits atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits independently of effects on plasma cholesterol concentrations." Circ Res. August24,1998;83:366-377.
Suadicani P, et al. "Serum selenium concentration and risk of ischaemic heart disease in a prospective cohort study of 3000 males." Atheroscler. 1992;96:33-42.
Wojcicki J, et al. "Effect of selenium and vitamin E on the development of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits." Atheroscler. 1991;87:9-16.
Kok FJ, et al. "Decreased selenium levels in acute myocardial infarction." JAMA. 1989;261:1161-1164.
Ikram H, et al. "The role of selenium deficiency in occidental dilated cardiomyopathy." NZ Med J. 1989;102:100-102.
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Keshan Disease Research Group. "Epidemiologic studies on the etiologic relationship of selenium and Keshan disease." Chin Med J. 1979;92:477-482.
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Cawley GD, Bradley R. "Sudden death in calves associated with acute myocardial degeneration and selenium deficiency." Vet Rec. 1978; 103:239-240.
Shamberger RJ, Willis CE. "Epidemiological studies on selenium and heart disease." Fed Proc. 1976;35:578(Abs #2061).
Zinc, Copper, Manganese
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Spencer JC. "Direct relationship between the body's copper/zinc ratio, ventricular premature beats, and sudden coronary death." Am J Clin Nutr. 1979;32:1184-1186.
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Abraham A. "Chromium and cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits." Ann Nutr and Metab. 1991;35:203-207
Press RI, et al. "The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human sublects." West J Med. 1990;152:41-45.
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Haenni A, et al. "Atherogenic lipid fractions are related to ionized magnesium status." Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:202-207.
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Parsons RS, et al. "The treatment of coronary artery disease with parenteral magnesium sulfate." Med Proc. 1959;5:487-498.
Malkiel-Shapiro B. "Further observations on parenteral magnesium sulfate therapy in coronary heart disease: a clinical appraisal." S Afr Med J. 1958;32:1211.
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Loeper J, et al. "The antiatheromatous action of silicon." Atheroscler. 1979;33:397.
Schwartz K, et al. "Inverse relation of silicon in drinking water and atherosclerosis in Finland." Lancet. 1977;l:538.
Luomala M, et al. "High plasma levels of CD40 are associated with low coenzyme Q and vitamin E content of low-density lipoprotein in healthy men." Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2007;67(2):115-22.
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Omega-3 Fatty Acids
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Omega-6 Fatty Acids
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Red Yeast Rice
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Yuan J, et al. "116 cases of coronary angina pectoris treated with powder composed of radix ginseng, radix notoginseng and succinum." J Tradit Chin Med. Mar,1997;17(1):14-7.
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Jiang SS, et al. "Changes in the deformability of erythrocytes and 2,3-DPG in coronary artery stenosis." Chung Hua Hsin Hsueh Kuan Ping Tsa Chih. Oct,1989;17(5):288-9.
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Nagano T, et al. "New curcuminoids isolated from Zingiber cassumunar protect cells suffering from oxidative stress: a flow-cytometric study using rat thymocytes and H2O2." Jap J Pharmacol. Dec,1997;75(4):363-70.
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Smoking and Secondhand Smoke
McGill HC Jr, et al. "Origin of atherosclerosis in childhood and adolescence." Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(suppl):1307S-1315S.
He J, et al. "Passive smoking and the risk of coronary heart disease - a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies." N Engl J Med. March25,1999;340(12):920-926.
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Glantz SA, Parmley WW. "Passive smoking and heart disease: mechanisms and risk." JAMA. April5,1995;273(13):1047-1053.
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